No Image Available

Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide

Publication Number: NRAES-75
Cost: $25.00
Length: 361 pages
Price reduced from $48

This comprehensive, regional guide provides the background and instruction necessary for an effective orchard monitoring program. The guide will help fruit growers, consultants, chemical field representatives, and extension personnel manage the complex agroecosystem of an orchard. Early sections provide background information on the production components for which monitoring is essential. Later sections focus on developing a monitoring plan and schedule. A unique feature of the plan and schedule is the division of each tree fruit into six or seven periods of the season. This user-friendly guide features 13 chapters, 18 appendixes, 322 full-color photos, 13 figures, 26 tables, a glossary, and a reference section. (1995)

Tree fruit growers today must make many decisions regarding all aspects of fruit production in the face of increasing global competition. To maintain profitability, growers must know how to monitor orchards, make sound decisions, and take timely action in managing the complex agroecosystem of an orchard. A book providing the background and instruction necessary for an effective orchard monitoring program, Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide, NRAES-75, is now available at a reduced price.

Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide, NRAES-75 (370 pages, 1995), is a comprehensive regional guide intended for fruit growers, consultants, chemical field representatives, and research and extension personnel. The guide is 370 pages long and includes 13 chapters, 18 appendixes, 322 full-color photos, 13 figures, 26 tables, a glossary, and a references section.

Chapters 1 through 9 contain basic information about insects and mites, diseases, nematodes, weeds, frost monitoring, irrigation scheduling, wildlife, nutrition, and fruit. This section of the guide provides background information on the production components for which monitoring is essential.

Chapters 10 through 13 focus on the components of orchard monitoring: equipment and supplies; plan and schedule; evaluation; and record keeping. A unique feature of the monitoring plan and schedule is the division of each tree fruit into six or seven periods of the season. At each stage, procedures and thresholds are specified for all items to be monitored. Chapter 12 provides instruction in conducting a postharvest assessment of fruit quality and discusses the economics of orchard monitoring. Chapter 13 explains the use of tables and record-keeping forms contained in the appendix.

Mid-Atlantic Orchard Monitoring Guide, NRAES-75, was written by thirty-seven fruit researchers and extension specialists from land grant universities in Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as researchers from the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Leadership for the publication was provided by West Virginia University.

The publication was edited by Henry Hogmire, Jr., professor of entomology and extension specialist with the West Virginia University Tree Fruit Research and Education Center in Kearneysville, West Virginia. Funding for this guide was provided by the Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.


About the Authors

List of Tables

List of Figures

Key to Photographs

Introduction

Using the Guide



Chapter 1: Insects and Mites

Index of Insects and Mites
Index of Natural Enemies
Apple - Direct Pests
Apple - Indirect Pests
Pear - Direct Pests
Pear - Indirect Pests
Peach and Nectarine - Direct Pests
Peach and Nectarine - Indirect Pests
Cherry - Direct Pests
Cherry - Indirect Pests
Plum - Direct Pests
Plum - Indirect Pests
Natural Enemies
Mite Predators
Aphid Predators
Other Natural Enemies
Pollination
Photographs



Chapter 2: Diseases

Index of Diseases
Apple
Pear
Peach and Nectarine
Cherry
Plum
Photographs



Chapter 3: Nematodes

Problems Caused by Plant Parasitic Nematodes
Common Plant Parasitic Nematodes
Nematode-Related Problems
Photographs



Chapter 4: Weeds

Problems Caused by Weeds
Weed Life Cycle
Troublesome Weeds in Orchards
Other Common Weeds in Orchards
Photographs



Chapter 5: Frost Monitoring and Prediction

Types of Cold Events
Temperature Monitoring Equipment
Adjusting Weather Forecasts to Predict Potential Frosts



Chapter 6: Irrigation Scheduling

Probe and Ponder
Feel Methods
Gravimetric Determination of Available Water
Electronic Moisture Probes
Tensiometers
Gypsum and Resistance Blocks
Meteorological Budgets
Photographs



Chapter 7: Wildlife

Voles
Deer
Rabbits
Woodchucks
Birds
Photographs



Chapter 8: Nutrition

Foliar Analysis
Nutrient Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms in Tree Fruit
Macronutrients
Micronutrients
Non-Nutritional and Other Nutrient-Related Disorders
Photographs



Chapter 9: Fruit

Pollination, Fertilization and Set
Thinning
Size
Quality
Preharvest Fruit Drop
Maturity
Photographs



Chapter 10: Monitoring Equipment and Supplies

Weather Station
Disease and Insect Phenology Predictors
Insect Traps
Photographs



Chapter 11: Monitoring Plan and Schedule

Apple
Dormant
Prebloom
Bloom to Fruit Set
Mid Season
Late Season
Preharvest
Postharvest
Pear
Dormant
Prebloom
Bloom to Fruit Set
Mid Season
Late Season
Preharvest
Postharvest

Peach / Nectarine
Dormant
Bud-Break to Bloom
Petal Fall to Shuck Fall
Mid Season to Late Season
Preharvest
Postharvest
Cherry
Dormant
Bud-Break to Bloom
Petal Fall to Shuck Fall
Mid Season to Late Season
Preharvest
Postharvest
Plum
Dormant
Bud-Break to Bloom
Petal Fall to Shuck Fall
Mid Season to Late Season
Preharvest
Postharvest
All Tree Fruits
Photographs



Chapter 12: Evaluation

Postharvest Fruit Quality Assessment
Economics of Orchard Monitoring



Chapter 13: Record Keeping

Appendixes

Daily Weather Forecast Form
Weather and Degree Day and Hour Record Form
Degree Day Table for 43 degree F Minimum Threshold
Degree Day Table for 45 degree F Minimum and 91 degree F Maximum Thresholds
Degree Day Table for 50 degree F Minimum and 88 degree F Maximum Thresholds
Degree Day Table for 55 degree F Minimum and 90 degree F Maximum Thresholds
Degree Hour Table for 65 degree F Minimum and 90 degree F Maximum Thresholds
Apple Insect and Disease Monitoring Report
Pear Insect and Disease Monitoring Report
Peach and Nectarine Insect and Disease Monitoring Report
Cherry Insect and Disease Monitoring Report
Plum Insect and Disease Monitoring Report
Vole Monitoring Report
Deer Monitoring Report
Weed Survey Report
Fruit Monitoring Report
Pesticide Application Record
Orchard Nutrition Balance Sheet



Glossary

Research and Extension Personnel

References

Back to the Top