Enhancing Wildlife Habitats: A Practical Guide for Forest Landowners

Publication Number: NRAES-64
Cost: $20.00
Length: 172 pages
ISBN: ISBN 0-935817-35-2

This publication was awarded a blue ribbon in the 1994 ASAE Educational Aids Competition.

Some 70% of all the woodland in the northeastern United States belongs to private, nonindustrial landowners. This publication contains recommendations and field exercises for landowners who want to ensure quality habitats for the wildlife in the region. It includes sections on forest wildlife ecology, understanding wildlife habitats, and wetlands, as well as specific guidelines for enhancing habitats of woodcock, ruffed grouse, white-tailed deer, wild turkey, and other upland and wetland animals. The book contains over 100 figures, many of which are black-and-white photographs; 11 tables; a glossary; and references. (1993)

As concern for the environment grows, so does the need for effective management of the life inhabiting our great woodlands. Enhancing Wildlife Habitats: A Practical Guide for Forest Landowners, NRAES-64, is a comprehensive guide designed specifically for private, non-industrial forest owners. This straightforward guide outlines strategies for developing a well-focused plan to encourage and manage wildlife on woodlots.

The initial sections of the book are designed to give readers a clear understanding of the complex plant and animal interactions they will encounter on their woodlots. Featured in these sections are topics such as forest growth, the forest community, wildlife populations, cover, food, and water. Other sections discuss encouraging the growth of specific animal populations. Descriptions, ranges, life histories, and habitat requirements of many wildlife species are included.

The book includes chapters on basic forest wildlife ecology, understanding wildlife habitats, American woodcock and ruffed grouse, white-tailed deer and eastern wild turkey, other upland forest wildlife species, and wetlands wildlife, as well as an appendix, glossary, and references. Review questions are also included at the end of each chapter. The book is 172 pages long with 11 tables and over 100 figures, many of which are black-and-white photographs.

Enhancing Wildlife Habitats: A Practical Guide for Forest Landowners, NRAES-64, was written by Scott S. Hobson, chief biologist at Keyes Associates and Environmental Scientific; John S. Barclay, associate professor of wildlife management and extension wildlife specialist at the University of Connecticut; and Stephen H. Broderick, extension forester at the University of Connecticut.

Figures and Tables

List of Figures
List of Tables

Preface

Basic Forest Wildlife Ecology

Introduction
The Growth of Forests
Forest Succession
Special Features of Forest Succession
The Forest Community
The Food Pyramid
Food Chains and Food Webs
The Role of Decomposers
Niche
Wildlife Populations
Carrying Capacity
Reproduction
Mortality
Review Questions
Field Exercises

Understanding Wildlife Habitats

Introduction
Habitat Requirements of Wildlife
Cover
Special Examples of Cover
Food
Special Examples of Food Sources
Water
Special Examples of Water Sites
Additional Habitat Components to Consider
Edge and Ecotone
Wildlife Movements
Home Range
Territoriality
Dispersal
Migration
Travel Lanes
Special Example of Travel Lanes
Observing Wildlife and Recognizing Signs of Presence
Tracks
Feeding Evidence
Scats
Other Signs of Wildlife Presence
Review Questions
Field Exercises

American Woodcock and Ruffed Grouse

Introduction
American Woodcock
Description and Range
Life History
Habitat Requirements
Managing Habitats for Woodcock
Ruffed Grouse
Description and Range
Life History
Habitat Requirements
Managing Habitats for Ruffed Grouse
Review Questions
Field Exercises

White-tailed Deer and Eastern Wild Turkey

Introduction
White-tailed Deer
Description and Range
Life History
Habitat Requirements
Managing Habitats for White-tailed Deer
Deer as a Nuisance
Eastern Wild Turkey
Description and Range
Life History
Habitat Requirements
Managing Habitats for Eastern Wild Turkeys
Review Questions
Field Exercises

Other Upland Forest Wildlife Species

Introduction
Selected Species Groups
Rabbits and Hares
Tree Squirrels and Chipmunks
Woodchucks
Small Mammals
Canids
Felids
"Upland" Mustelids
Songbirds and Woodpeckers
Raptors
Managing Habitats for Upland Forest Wildlife
Maintaining Early Successional Habitats for Food and Cover
Managing Pole- and Timber-sized Forests for Food and Cover
Trail Systems
Review Questions
Field Exercises

Wetlands Wildlife

Introduction
What Are Wetlands?
Definition of Wetlands
Description of Wetland Types
Inland Wetlands
Significance of Inland Wetlands to Wildlife
The Role of Inland Wetlands
Selected Species
Wood Duck
Other Cavity-nesting Waterfowl
American Black Duck
Other Ground-nesting Waterfowl
Herons and Bitterns
Rails and Grebes
Muskrat
Beaver
Aquatic Mustelids
Raccoon
Managing Forest Wetland Habitats for Wildlife
Maintaining Buffer Strips and Corridors
Measures to Prevent Erosion and Sedimentation
Managing Cover and Food Plants
Managing for Cavity Trees, Snags, and Beaver
Artificial Nest Structures for Inland Wetlands
Trail Systems
A Note on Pond Design
Review Questions
Field Exercises

Appendix

Table 9. List of scientific names of plants mentioned in the text.
Table 10. List of scientific names of animals mentioned in the text.
Table 11. Metric conversions.

Glossary

Glossary

References

Literature Cited & Selected References

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